Knee Pain When Walking, Bending Knees, Squats, or Climbing Stairs


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Evidence Based - Facts Checked

This content is medically reviewed by Dr. Apoorv Dua (MS Ortho) and written by Puneet Utreja

Last Medical Review Date Date - 17th September 2020



Knee pain has become very common these days. Its prevalence in the world is increasing year on year. 1 Nielsen, E. M. G., Henriksen, M., Christensen, R., Heitmann, B. L., Altman, R., March, L., Woolf, A., Karlsen, H., & Bliddal, H. (2019, September 4)  Source - PubMed Central (PMC) Ageing, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, bad ergonomics, and ignorance in day to day practice can lead to knee pain. The intensity of pain varies from mild to throbbing while doing day to day activities like walking, bending knees, squats, or climbing stairs. Diagnosing and starting the treatment at the right time is vital to avoid surgery or knee replacement.

Pain in the knee is because of an underlying medical condition, and to proceed with the treatment, finding the exact location of the problem is vital in diagnosing the right reason for your knee pain. If you can help your Orthopedician with the precise location of the problem, the treatment becomes far more accurate.

Click on the area of Knee Pain Below to directly find out the reason for it

Following are the various types of knee pain, classified as per the location of knee pain and the impact it has on day to day activities like walking, bending knees, squats, climbing stairs etc.

Knee Pain above the Knee (at the front)

Anterior Knee Pain

1

Synovitis

Synovitis is a medical condition in which the inflammation of the synovial membrane (which covers the synovial hinge joint) occurs. It is caused due to trauma or excessive use, which leads to damage to the synovial membrane. With time, the membrane thickens with blood vessels and become painful, accompanied by swelling 2Gerena, L. A. (2019, May 05) Source - PubMed 


SYMPTOMS
  • Swelling in the knee
  • Pain during movement:- The patient may face issues while:-
     - Walking
     - Running
  • As and when the inflammation increases with time, the person may find it extremely difficult to walk and might limp over his toes to walk.
  • Inflammation may result in fever
  • The tissues in the knee may thicken

2

 QUADRICEPS TENDONITIS

Quadriceps tendon connects patella and quadriceps muscle. Quadriceps tendonitis is a medical condition in which the quadriceps tendon becomes inflamed. The most common cause of inflammation is the overuse of the tendon and muscles because of the strenuous activities like jumping, running, which puts excess pressure on the knee. Other reasons that might contribute to quadriceps tendonitis are:-

  • Use of footwear with a poorly shaped sole
  • Obesity


SYMPTOMS 3Patel, D. R., & Villalobos, A. (2017, July)        Source Pubmed
  • Pain during movement:- The patient may face issues while:-
    - Squatting
    - Running
    - Jumping
    - Kneeling
  • Limping while walking
  • Stiffness during morning hours
  • Swelling in the knee
  • Pain, even by touching the area above the knee

3

 PLICA SYNDROME 

Plica syndrome is a medical condition in which plica, which is a fold inside the synovial membrane, responsible for lining the knee joint, incurs inflammation. Trauma, sudden turn, overuse of the muscles are some of the reasons accountable for plica syndrome.


SYMPTOMS 4Feng Lee, P. Y., Nixion, A., Chandratreya, A., & Murray, J. M. (2017, January 1)        Source PubMed
  • Pain during movement:- The patient may face issues while:-
    - Squatting
    - Climbing or descending the stairs
    - Kneeling down
  • Patients feel their knees getting locked while getting up from a chair (also associated with meniscal tears)
  • Cracking or popping sound while straightening the knee
  • Fear of falling while on an inclined plane

Knee Pain at the front (Within the Knee)

Anterior Knee Pain

1

PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME / Runner's Knee

It is caused due to misalignment or overuse of the kneecap. It is, therefore, also called a Runner's knee. It is generally found in atheletes and young female patients.5Petersen, W., Ellermann, A., Gösele-Koppenburg, A., Best, R., Rembitzki, I. V., Brüggemann, G.-P., & Liebau, C. (2013, November 13) Source - Pubmed 6Halabchi, F., Abolhasani, M., Mirshahi, M., & Alizadeh, Z. (2017, October 9) Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement:- A dull but still a considerable knee pain, especially while:-
     - Sitting
     - Walking
     - While doing squats
     - Coming down the stairs
  • Stiffness in the knee, on keeping your knee idle for a long time. For example, while sitting on a chair for an extended duration, driving a car for a considerable distance, sitting for an extended period with a bent knee, etc.

2

ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

It is caused due to an injury in the knee ligament 7Iliopoulos, E., Galanis, N., Iosifidis, M. et al Source  . It affects the ability of the patient to walk8“copers” and “non-copers”. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 25, 1403–1411 (2017).  Source  


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement:- The patient feels worsening of pain and unstable while:-
      - Walking
      - Climbing up the stairs
  • Sudden Intense and Sharp Pain – Unlike other knee conditions where the pain is progressive in nature, a patient suffering from anterior cruciate ligament experiences a sudden onset of pain, which is quite sharp and throbbing in form.
  • Swelling in Knee – Since anterior cruciate ligament condition is caused due to an injury, therefore swelling develops inside the knee as a response from your body's immune system.
  • Tenderness in the knee joint
  • Popping Sound – In some cases, patients might feel a popping sound while walking, straightening the legs, and climbing the stairs

3

BURSITIS

Bursae is a fluid sac located adjacent to the tendons in the knee. When bursae become inflamed, the condition is termed as bursitis. It is caused due to frequent excessive pressure on the knee, strenuous activity involving excessive knee movement, a trauma in the knee, bacterial infection, or complications arising from arthritis 9Williams, C. H. (2020, August 15)          Source - PubMed Books


SYMPTOMS10Sarifakioglu, B., Afsar, S. I., Yalbuzdag, S. A., Ustaömer, K., & Bayramoğlu, M. (2016, July 1)       Source PubMed 
  • Pain during and While Applying Pressure on the Knee – The patient experiences dull but considerable problem while:-
      - Walking on flat surface
      - Bending the knee
      - Climbing the stairs
      - While doing squats
  • Swelling and Redness in the knee joint
  • Tenderness and stiffness in the knee joint

4

CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE 

If the pain is felt at the point where the knee and thigh meet, then it is an indication of patella chondromalacia. The cartilage behind the knee becomes soft in this medical condition. 11Halabchi, F., Abolhasani, M., Mirshahi, M., & Alizadeh, Z. (2017a, October)          Source - PubMed Books


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain During MovementThe patients may face discomfort while:-
      - Jumping
      - Running
      - Coming down the stairs
      - Climbing up the stairs
      - Doing squats
  • Pain During rest – especially while sitting with the knee slightly bent, but for a considerable duration
  • Swelling in the Knee
  • Cracking or Grinding sound while moving the knee

5

 OSTEOARTHRITIS

Osteoarthritis is a medical condition found in middle-aged or older individuals. Inflammation due to wear and tear of the hyaline cartilage (caused due to obesity, injury, strenuous activity, or genetic factors) occurs in the knee joints. It is also known as a degenerative disorder.12Chen, D., Shen, J., Zhao, W., Wang, T., Han, L., Hamilton, J. L., & Im, H.-J. (2017, January 17)          Source - PubMed


SYMPTOMS13Neogi, T. (2013, September 1)   Source PubMed 14Health, I. (2014, July 16)   Source PubMed 
  • Pain During MovementThe patients may face discomfort while:-
      - Walking
      - Squats
      - Climbing up the stairs
      - Descending the stairs
      - Bending of knees
  • Swelling and feeling of warmth in the knee due to inflammation
  • Cracking sound during knee movement
  • Stiffness in the knee after prolonged rest, for example, getting up after sitting in a chair, the patient might feel difficulty in straightening the legs. Further, the patients also complain of stiffness in the knee in the morning
  • Gradual Knee Deformity
  • Gradual Increase in Pain -  As osteoarthritis mature, the intensity of pain also increases

6

 PATELLA SUBLUXATION OR PARTIAL DISLOCATION

Patella subluxation or partial dislocation is a medical condition in which your knee cap suffers an injury or trauma, leading to slipping of the kneecap outside the groove15RESPIZZI, STEFANO., & CAVALLIN, RAMON. (2014, August).          Source - PubMed 16Enix, D. E., Sudkamp, K., Scali, F., Keating, R., & Welk, A. (2015, September 1).          Source - PubMed


SYMPTOMS
  • Fear of falling and difficulty while:-
      - Walking
      - Running
      - Climbing up the stairs
      - Descending the stairs
      - Doing Squats
  • Knee cap slipping out of the position while moving your leg
  • Change in the appearance of the knee
  • Excessive Pain and Swelling in the knee
  • Popping sound in the knee while moving the leg
  • Stiffness and Locking sensation in the knee

7

 PATELLOFEMORAL ARTHRITIS

Patellofemoral arthritis is a medical condition in which the patella does not rest appropriately inside the groove of the thigh bone (Dysplasia) as a result of which he cartilage of both the surfaces collide with each other and thereby leads to wear and tear. Kneecap fracture is the second reason for patellofemoral arthritis17Kiel, J. (2020, June 25)         Source - PubMed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain During Movement – Dull pain may be felt while:-
      - Climbing or descending the stairs
      - Doing squats
      - Kneeling
      - Getting up from a low height chair
  • Reduce in the strength of quadriceps
  • Crepitus – A cracking sound while moving the knee

8

 PATELLAR TENDONITIS

Patellar Tendonitis is also known as a Jumper's Knee. This medical condition is prevalent in the athletes where the sports require frequently jumping, for example, gymnastics, long jump, volleyball, basketball, etc. The overuse of the knee can cause injury leading to tearing of the tendon muscles18Santana, J. (2019, November 16)         Source - PubMed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain During Movement – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
      - Descending the stairs
      - Doing squats
      - Jumping
      - Running
  • Stiffness in the knee
  • Pain in the lower part of the knee cap
  • The feeling of weakness in the knee
  • If the tear of tendon muscle is on a higher grade, then the patient might hear a cracking sound, experience extreme pain, and also face difficulty in straightening the leg

9

 SLJ SYNDROME (SINDING LARSEN JOHANSSON)

Sinding Larsen Johansson syndrome is a medical condition generally found in the active adolescents (Age group – 10 – 13 years) who into sports, which requires frequently jumping like volleyball, basketball etc.   It is caused due to the overuse of knee in active adolescents, resulting in inflammation on the lower side of the patella (at the junction of tibia and tendon).19Patel, D. R., & Villalobos, A. (2017, July 1)        Source - PubMed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain During Movement – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
      - Jumping
      - Running
      - Kneeling
  • Tenderness in the kneecap
  • Swelling in the kneecap
  • Bumpy bone or swollen bone under the kneecap

10

OSGOOD SCHLATTER DISEASE

Just like Sinding Larsen Johansson syndrome, Osgood Schlatter disease is caused due to the overactivity of the knee. Individuals who are active in sports, which requires jumping frequently, for example, volleyball, lawn tennis, basketball, etc. tend to suffer from Osgood Schlatter disease20Patel, D. R., & Villalobos, A. (2017, July 1)        Source - PubMed  

Unlike Sinding Larsen Johansson syndrome, Osgood Schlatter disease is found in both adolescents and teenagers. The epicenter is located on the top of the tibia bone, just below the knee cap.


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain During Movement – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
      - Squatting
      - Jumping
      - Kneeling
  • Pain is felt in leg and knee
  • Tenderness and swelling under the knee
  • Feeling of warmth under the knee
  • Difficulty in walking after exercise

Knee Pain ON THE Sides of the knee (lateral position)

Lateral Knee Pain

1

DAMAGE OF LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT

Ligament in the knee joint is called a lateral collateral ligament. It helps in keeping the knee stable, especially from the outer side. A trauma, including tear of the ligament, sprain, strain, can cause damage to the lateral collateral ligament21Yaras, R. J. (2020, August 04)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS22Fitzpatrick, D., Dursun, M., & Webborn, N. (2019, December)   Source
  • Pain outside the knee during movement– Extreme pain may be felt while:-
     - Walking
     - Jogging, Squats and Running - It will be tough for you to do squats or running if suffering from              lateral collateral ligament damage
  •  Stiffness in the knee
  • Fear of falling while moving, as if it feels that the knee might pop out of its position
  • In some cases, the patient might also feel numbness in the knee
  • Weakness in the muscles around the knee

2

HAMSTRING TENDINITIS

Hamstring Tendinitis is a medical condition that is prevalent in sportsperson who are into playing lawn tennis, football, badminton, hockey, and any sport that requires twisting your knee frequently. During the activity, if the hamstring tendons get injured, it leads to hamstring tendinitis23Goom, Tom & Malliaras, Peter & Reiman, Michael & Purdam, Craig. (2016)   Source  


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain outside the knee during movement– Extreme pain may be felt while:-
     - Running
     - Squatting
     - Climbing or descending the stairs
     - Sitting or getting up from a low raise chair
  • Tenderness and swelling in thigh and knee
  • Extreme radiating pain starting from the knee and may travel up the thigh and, in some cases, till the pelvis

3

PRESSURE ON LATERAL MENISCUS DUE TO THE CYST FORMATION

A cyst is formed when synovial fluids start collecting up to form lumps. It thereby exerts pressure on the meniscus cartilage. The tear of the meniscus cartilage leads to the collection of the synovial fluid.24Chang, A. (2009, February)    Source - Pubmed. This medical condition is usually found in athletes.


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain outside the knee during movement:-
     - Doing Squats
     - Kneeling
     - Walking with a noticeable limp in the movement
     - Twisting the knee
  • Swelling in the knee
  • Tenderness
  • A feeling of knee popping out while moving

4

ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME

Iliotibial Band syndrome is a medical condition in which the patient feels pain on the outside of the leg, starting right from the pelvis to the tibia bone. It is caused due to the inflammation of the iliotibial band.25Patel, D., & Villalobos, A. (2017, July)    Source - Pubmed.


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain outside the leg during movement – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
     - Running
     - Descending the stairs
    Swelling in the knee
  • Burning sensation around the knee
  • Stiffness in the buttocks
  • Feeling of knee popping out while walking

Knee Pain ON THE inner Sides of the knee (medial position)

Medial Knee Pain

1

DAMAGE OF medial COLLATERAL LIGAMENT

The medial collateral ligament helps in providing stability to the knee joint while moving. A sudden twist or trauma can damage the medial collateral ligament and lead to the inflammation.26Naqvi, U. (2020, April 20)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement on the inner side of the knee –
     - Walking & running for long distances
     - Feeling of knee popping out while climbing up or descending the stairs
    -  Extreme pain may be felt while doing squats
  • Swelling in the knee
  • Tenderness in the knee
  • Locking of the knee at an angle of 15 – 30 degrees and thereby having difficulty in straightening the leg after that.
  • Feeling of the knee not supporting you while moving

2

MEDIAL MENISCUS TEAR

Meniscus Cartilage Tear1

In in the middle of the thigh bone (femur) and lower leg bone (tibia) is present menisci, which prevents the leg from the upper body shock. The medial meniscus sits inside the knee. Sportsperson involved in sports, which requires sudden twisting like football, hockey, basketball, etc. (which can cause trauma) tend to suffer from a medial meniscus tear27Raj, M. (2020, July 19)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement on the inner side of the knee –
     - While doing squats
     - Kneeling
    -  Walking with a noticeable limp in the movement
    -  Twisting the knee
  • Swelling in the knee
  • Tenderness in the knee
  • A feeling of knee popping out while walking

3

MEDIAL PLICA – IRRITATION

Medial plica knee pain is a medical condition in which plica, which is a fold in the thin synovial membrane, becomes inflamed due to injury or overuse. The patient experiences pain on the medial side/ inner side of the knee 28Griffith, C., & LaPrade, R. (2008, March)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement on the inner side of the knee –
     - Squatting
     - Climbing or descending the stairs
    -  Kneeling down
  • The nature of pain is sharp and shooting
  • The patient may complain of feeling unstable while on an inclined plane or stairs
  • Difficulty in sitting for a prolonged period with legs folded
  • Your knees might feel locked when getting up from a chair
  • A popping sound, as if the knee would come out while walking

4

AVASCULAR NECROSIS or OSTEONECROSIS

Osteonecrosis or Avascular necrosis is a medical condition in which the bone tissue dies due to lack of blood supply. This leads to the weakening and breakdown of the bone and hence leads to knee pain. Excessive consumption of alcohol, steroid drugs, and bis phosphates are some of the causative agents for Osteonecrosis or Avascular necrosis 29Barney, J. (2020, July 06)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Sudden onset of pain in the inner side of the knee during movement while –
     - Standing
     - Walking with limping
    -  Climbing the stairs
    -   Running or Jogging may be a very challenging task for the patient suffering from Osteonecrosis or       Avascular necrosis
  • Knee pain increases in the night
  • Weight-bearing also causes pain in the knee

Note:

If AVASCULAR NECROSIS OR OSTEONECROSIS is not treated well on time, the patient might not be able to move as the bone may collapse

5

OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECT

An osteochondral defect is a medical condition in which the articular cartilage gets damaged, which in turn affects the underlying bone. Sportsperson playing football, basketball, rugby, hockey, etc. are at a higher risk of suffering from osteochondral defects.30Vuurberg, G., Reilingh, M., Van Bergen, C., Van Eekeren, I., Gerards, R., & Van Dijk, C. (2018, June)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain in the inner side of the knee during movement –
     -  Climbing the stairs
     -  Running
    -   Jogging
  • Swelling and tenderness
  • Weakness in the joints
  • Difficulty in straightening the legs
  • Locking of the knee joint while moving

6

OSTEOARTHRITIS

Osteoarthritis is a medical condition in which the femoro-tibial compartment's cartilage undergoes wear and tear and degenerates. This leads to the increased formation of synovial fluid, which causes bony osteophyte formation leading to knee pain on the inner side of the knee31Neogi, T. (2013, September)   Source - Pubmed 32Chen, D., Shen, J., Zhao, W., Wang, T., Han, L., Hamilton, J., & Im, H. (2017, January 17)   Source - Pubmed 33Health.org, I. (2014, July 16)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain During movement in the inner side of the knee – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
     -  Walking
     -  Squats
    -   Climbing up the stairs
    -   Descending the stairs
    -   Bending of knees
  • Stiffness in the knee, especially during the morning
  • Deformity of the knee happens gradually
  • Popping sound while moving the knee
  • Feeling of warmth and swelling in the knee

Knee Pain - BAck of the knee 

Back Knee Pain

1

INJURY OF POPLITEUS MUSCLE

A thin triangular muscle present in the popliteal fossa, at the back of the knee joint, is called popliteus muscle. Sudden trauma can cause injury to the popliteus muscle and hence lead to pain at the back of the knee. This medical condition is prevalent in athletes or individuals with a history of knee ligament injury34Crespo, B., James, E., Metsavaht, L., & LaPrade, R. (2014, December 24)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement at the back of the knee – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
     - Walking
     - Running
     - Climbing the stairs
  • Localized swelling
  • Redness in the area of knee pain
  • Tenderness in the knee, especially in the lateral region of the knee
  • Knee flexion of 15-30 degrees
  • Popping sound while moving the knee
  • The affected area in the knee becomes extra sensitive, and the patient feels the pain, just by touching it

2

BAKER's CYST

Baker's cyst is a medical condition wherein an increased quantity of synovial fluid gets collected in the bursa (inflammation) of the popliteal fossa35Abdelrahman, M., Tubeishat, S., & Hammoudeh, M. (2012)   Source - Pubmed

What is Bursa?

Bursa is a sac that helps in reducing the traction between tendon and skin as well as bone and tendon. It is filled with synovial fluid, which allows it to reduce friction. The increase in synovial fluid (happens due to trauma or arthritis) leads to inflammation and results in swelling, which can be seen behind the knee.


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement at the back of the knee – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
     - Bending the knee
     - Squats
     - Jogging
  • Blood Clot, if noticed, should be considered as an emergency, and the patient should be rushed to the hospital
  • Swelling on the backside of the knee
  • Stiffness that might prevent you from bending your knees
  • Complaints of knee popping or clicking sound

3

CRAMPS

Cramp is a well known medical condition in which involuntarily contraction of the knee muscles and becomes stiff and painful. There are multiple known and unknown reasons for a knee muscle cramp to happen like dehydration, muscle fatigue, muscle strain, etc. Cramp itself is not a disease, but it's a symptom of an underlying illness36Stern, L. (1990, January 01)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Inability to move during the cramping pain
  • The cramping pain stays in for around 10-15 minutes, and after that, the soreness in the muscles can still be felt for a few hours
  • A feeling of an extremely painful knot behind the knee

4

HAMSTRING TENDONITIS INJURIES

Out of the three muscles that support the back of the thigh, the hamstring group of muscles is one of them. A rigid exercise or trauma can cause hamstring muscle wear and tear or strain, and thereby, patient experience pain at the back of the knee37Chu, S. K., & Rho, M. E. (2016)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement at the back of the knee – Extreme pain may be felt while:-
    - Walking
    - Squats
    - Bending the knee
    - Climbing the stairs
  • Tenderness in the knee
  • Feeling of knee popping out while moving
  • Swelling
  • Feeling of knee popping out while moving
  • Discoloration or bruising at the back of the knee
  • Weakness in the muscle, with an inability to bear weight on the injured leg

5

INJURY OF POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

The posterior cruciate ligament connects the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone). An injury or wear and tear of the posterior cruciate ligament leads to swelling and excessive pain at the back of the knee.38Chen, W., Luo, W., Chen, Z., & Jiang, Y. (2016, January)   Source - Pubmed


SYMPTOMS
  • Pain during movement at the back of the knee – pain may be felt while:-
    - Walking
    - Bending the knee
  • Swelling in the knee
  • A feeling of instability in the knee

By now, you might have been able to find out the probable cause of your knee pain, which you experience either while walking, running, bending your knees, jogging, squatting, etc. It is recommended by the Know Disease team to schedule a visit with your Orthopedics physician as soon as possible. It has been seen that the patient can return to the usual routine (without knee pain) if an orthopedic physician is consulted well in time.

KNEE PAIN -  INFO-GRAPHIC

KNEE PAIN AT THE FRONT (WITHIN KNEE)
While

Walking, Bending Knees, Squats, or Climbing Stairs

Anterior Knee Pain
Anterior Knee Pain

KNEE PAIN ABOVE THE KNEE (AT THE FRONT)
While

Walking, Bending Knees, Squats, or Climbing Stairs

Anterior Knee Pain

Knee Pain on the sides of the Knee (Lateral Position)
While

Walking, Bending Knees, Squats, or Climbing Stairs

Lateral Knee Pain

Knee Pain on the inner sides of the Knee (Medial Position)
While

Walking, Bending Knees, Squats, or Climbing Stairs

Medial Knee Pain

Knee Pain - Back of the Knee
While

Walking, Bending Knees, Squats, or Climbing Stairs

Back Knee Pain

References 

  1. 1
    Nielsen, E. M. G., Henriksen, M., Christensen, R., Heitmann, B. L., Altman, R., March, L., Woolf, A., Karlsen, H., & Bliddal, H. (2019, September 4).
    Prevalence of self-reported knee symptoms and management strategies among elderly individuals from Frederiksberg municipality: protocol for a prospective and pragmatic Danish cohort study. 
    PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731862/
  2. 2
    Gerena, L. A. (2019, May 05).
    Knee Effusion.
    Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532279/
  3. 3
    Patel, D. R., & Villalobos, A. (2017, July).
    Evaluation and management of knee pain in young athletes: Overuse injuries of the knee.
    Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5532199/
  4. 4
    Feng Lee, P. Y., Nixion, A., Chandratreya, A., & Murray, J. M. (2017, January 1).
    Synovial Plica Syndrome of the Knee: A Commonly Overlooked Cause of Anterior Knee Pain.
    PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5553487/
  5. 5
    Petersen, W., Ellermann, A., Gösele-Koppenburg, A., Best, R., Rembitzki, I. V., Brüggemann, G.-P., & Liebau, C. (2013, November 13).
    Patellofemoral pain syndrome.
    PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4169618/
  6. 6
    Halabchi, F., Abolhasani, M., Mirshahi, M., & Alizadeh, Z. (2017, October 9).
    Patellofemoral pain in athletes: clinical perspectives.
    PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5640415/
  7. 7
    Iliopoulos, E., Galanis, N., Iosifidis, M. et al. 
    Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency reduces walking economy in “copers” and “non-copers”.
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 25, 1403–1411 (2017). Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-015-3709-2
  8. 8
    Iliopoulos, E., Galanis, N., Iosifidis, M. et al. 
    Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency reduces walking economy
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